The side pointing away from the axis, usually the underside of a leaf, stem or branch.
The loss of a structure, such as a leaf, due to a chemical process where cells form a callous layer blocking food and water causing the structure to fall off.
Buds that are not found in the axils of the leaves but are often found above or adjacent to axillary buds at a node.
Narrow elongated leaf; Needle-shaped.
Sides curving concavely upward and inward then tapering to a fine point on the leaf apex.
An angle that is less than 90º with straight lines and having a point on a leaf apex.
The side toward the axis, usually the upper surface of a leaf, stem or branch.
Leaves or stems situated one at a node. Leaves can alternate in a distichous pattern 180º apart along two sides of the stem, or at lesser angles around a stem.
A section of the male part of a flower containing the pollen.
The top; the terminal portion of a leaf; plural is apices.
A leaf or petal having a short slender point that is flexible.
Firmly against another object, as a bud to a stem.
Branches of shrub (or any part of plant) that curves outward from the main body of the shrub.
A plant part that has an irregular shape. (See also Oblique).
Leaf tissue tapers down the petiole (toward the base) to a narrow base always having some fleshy leaf on either side of the petiole.
Ear-lobed shaped leaf base(s) attached to petiole.
Tapering to slender stiff point; Short stiff margins narrowing to a point, often sharp and found on young Junipers.
The angled point on a stem where the leaf (or petiole) attaches to the stem.
Beginning from the lower extremity of a plant part, as in leaves from the base of a stem.
The bottom; the proximal (nearest the stem) portion of a leaf (See also Apex).
Referring to a compound leaf where the pinnate leaflet has subdivided into smaller leaflets giving a more feather-like appearance.
In trees, shrubs, vines and grasses, blade refers to the individual leaf; often referred to as Lamina.
White or waxy coating on the surface; also referred to as being glaucous.
A modified leaf that is frequently showy and thought of as part of a flower; appears below actual flowers.
A secondary stem that forks off of the main stem or trunk.
A diminutive version of a branch; a small branch-like twig.
An ellipse that is less than twice as long as it is wide; Used often for habit and leaf but can be used for other descriptions.
Pyramid shaped or triangular with a wider base than pyramidal.
Nearly circular, but wider than tall.
The unexpanded next season’s growth of leaves and flowers; undeveloped leaves and shoots.
One of the sheaths that cover a bud; There can be a few to very many;
A tree bud that is rounded or ‘bulb-like’.
A raised blistered appearance between veins. Tissue near veins appears to pucker.
Refers to the vascular bundles that are found in the scar left behind on a stem after a leaf falls off (abscises).
Outer part of the flower usually green and consists of the sepals; Plural calyces; (See also Corolla).
A meristematic layer of cells responsible for the growth of the bark and the wood.
Dry dehiscent fruit that has more than one carpel or ovule.
The female reproductive organ that consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.
A unisexual spike flower that is a long unbranched petal-free male or female flower with bracts between the flowers and that uses wind to spread the pollen; hangs down and can be ornamental.
Fringe of fine hairs; can be found on leaves, stems, buds, flowers, etc.
Situated side-by-side; often in reference to multiple buds at a node.
Shaped like a column; much longer than wide and having a defined central leader.
Divisions where there are two or more similar characteristics.
Woody cluster of seeds on a scale attached to a center axis; see also Strobile.
Cone-shaped being taller than wide and attached at the wide end.
The fusion of plant organs; such as sexual organs, leaves, petals, etc.
Fusion of the bases of a pair of opposite leaves that attach directly to the stem (no petiole).
Twisted or bent in many directions; can appear on any part of plant.
Heart-shaped; can be overall leaf shape, or leaf base with the notched section connecting to the petiole.
Thick leathery texture of a leaf that is pliable.
The collective name for all of the petals of a flower; portions of the petals can be fused into a corolla tube (See also Calyx).
A flat-topped or round-topped indeterminate inflorescence with the lower pedicels growing to the same height as the upper and flowering first from the outside towards the center (See also Cyme and Umbel).
Rounded teeth along margin.
Narrow wedge-shaped leaf base tapering to a point at the petiole.
Tipped with a short, abrupt point on a leaf apex narrowing to tip.
Flat-topped or round-topped determinate inflorescence; paniculate; terminal flower blooms first (See also Corymb and Umbel).
A non-evergreen plant that loses it leaves after its growing season.
A plant structure that grows along the ground with the tip curving upward (See also Prostrate).
A leaf blade that attaches to and runs down the stem to the connecting point.
Leaves arranged in opposite pairs, rotating 90º at every node (See also Distichous).
An organ splitting open when ripe; commonly used for seed pods and anthers (for pollen release).
Triangular like the Greek letter Delta, bottom two corners can be angular or rounded.
Square or rectangular teeth along margin pointing outward (See also Serrate and Crenate).
Diminutive of dentate with very small square or rectangular teeth.
Predefined end of growth; in flowers the terminal flower blooms first stopping the elongation of the main axis.
Expanded or flaring open.
Veins extend from a common point forming a “y” pattern and fanning out as each vein branches into two.
Plants that have all male or all female flowers but not both; often referred to as having “two houses”. Dioecious plants are thus either male or female.
A part of a plant that is deeply divided into narrow segments (See also Incised).
Leaves are arranged in two ranks along either side of a stem (See also Decussate).
Splitting or spreading apart.
Split, cut, or lobed all the way to the base or midrib.
Forward pointing teeth with each tooth (serration) having smaller serrations on it.
Covered by a mass of small fine hairs that are soft.
Narrow oval broadest in middle, narrow at the two ends; ellipse-shaped.
The apex of the leaf is notched towards the petiole at the midvein.
Continuous smooth margin, not toothed, notched, or divided.
The outer layer of a non-woody plant (for a woody plant see bark).
Pinnately compound leaf with a pair of terminal leaflets instead of one terminal leaflet resulting in an even number of leaflets. (See also Pinnate).
To peel or pull away from; such as bark on a tree.
Hooked like a sickle or beak of a falcon.
A bundle or enclosure surrounding multiple parts (some evergreen needles, e.g. pines, are in a fascicle).
Multiple leaves appearing bundled in a fascicle (such as on a pine).
Branches erect and grown parallel, giving a broom-like appearance.
Roots that are well branched, more thread-like, and scattered with no central leader (See also Taproot).
The stalk of the stamen that holds the anther on a male flower.
Reproductive part of plant consisting of one or more of the following: stamens, pistils, sepals or petals.
All of the leaves of a plant.
Leaf or leaf-like; small unfurled leaves without a bud scale.
Decorative or stringy hairs along margin; can be seed, buds, leaves, etc (See also Tufted).
Funnel shaped; increasing in size from the base to the apex.
An organ, projection, or tissue that sometimes performs special functions, like secretion of oils or sticky subtances.
White or waxy coating on the surface often referred to as a bloom.
Round or spherical in shape.
The overall appearance or shape of a plant crown; a plant in silhouette.
The environment where a plant grows.
The innermost part of a branch or trunk; usually darker in color than the sapwood.
The term used for the berry-like fruit of a rose plant i.e. Rose hip; is actually a fleshy structure surrounding achenes.
Rough surface with stiff and bristly hairs.
Densely covered with short gray or white hair.
Cup-shaped structure formed from the fusion of the basil portions of the petal, sepals, and anthers; Usually surrounds the pistils. Commonly found in the Rosaceae family.
Overlapping structures like shingles on a roof; e.g. scales on an imbricate bud.
Veins sunken or below the surface of a leaf.
Cut sharply, deeply, and irregularly into angular serrations along the leaf margin.
An organ, e.g. a fruit, that does not split open at maturity (See also Dehiscent).
Part of the stem between two growing points or nodes.
Multiple bracts beneath a flower sometimes holding on into the fruiting stage as in acorn caps on oaks (Quercus).
Margins rolled towards the top of the leaf.
A ridge running down the center of the bud scale; ridged like the keel of a boat.
The expanded portion of a leaf or petal; Refers to individual leaves (See also Blades).
Longer than wide with widest point below the middle tapering to both the apex and base. Narrower than ovate.
Scar left behind on a stem after a leaf falls off (See also Abscission).
A covering or small stipule that covers part of a leaf.
A small corky protrusion that allows for gaseous exchange between the air and the plant tissues.
Long and thin like a line with parallel sides; length is more than 4 times the width (See also Oblong).
Rounded division or segment of a leaf or other organ. Can be symmetrical or asymmetrical and vary in sizes depending on species. Lobes are cut less than half way to the base or midvein.
Small rounded lobes around leaf edges (See also Lobed).
A broad plant habit that hugs the ground (See also Prostrate).
Shiny or glossy.
A group of cells responsible for rapid cell growth and differentiation in specialized tissues.
The primary vein found in many leaves; Often it runs down the center of leaves.
Both male and female flowers found separate on the same plant; flowers imperfect, both staminate and pistillate flowers borne on the same plant (See also Dioecious).
Leaf apex tipped with short abrupt point on midvein.
A fruit formed from several flowers.
A bud lacking scales.
Tetrahedral; triangle that is taller than wide. Width is about half of height. Same as reticulate.
Veins interlaced as in a network across the face of a leaf.
Point where new leaves or branches emerge (See also Internode).
Inversely cordate; heart shaped; if it is a leaf apex, the petiole attaches at the narrow end.
Inversely lanceolate; Much longer than wide with the widest point above the middle. Narrower than obovate (See also Lanceolate).
Unequal or asymmetric especially in leaf-blade or leaf base.
Two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.
Inversely ovate or teardrop-shaped; leaf connected to petiole at narrow end. Wider than oblanceolate (See also Ovate).
Rounded leaf apex, greater than 90º at apex.
A pinnately compound leaf that ends in a single leaflet so that there is an odd number of leaflets (See also Even-pinnate and Pinnate).
Appear across from one another at the same node; opposite leaves may also appear decussate (each pair alternating at 90º angles at every node).
Circular or rounded in leaf.
Two times longer than wide with rounded ends.
The lower portion of the female pistil that contains the ovules (See also Stygma and Style).
Teardrop-shaped in outline and attached (to petiole) at the broad end; Wider than Lanceolate.
A three dimensional part that appears egg-shaped; buds, fruits, etc.
Lobed, veined, or divided from a common point; usually 3 or more parts radiating from a common point; Veins, leaflets, lobes, etc.
A twice-branched, inflorescence maturing from the bottom towards the top.
Veins running nearly parallel; can be veins running parallel to the leaf axis or to each other.
A stalk of an individual flower (See also Peduncle).
A main stalk of an inflorescence from which the individual pedicels may arise. (See also Pedicel).
Drooping or hanging downward.
A flower that has both pistils and stamens.
Leaf surrounds stem directly attaching to it; stem appears to go through the center of leaf; there is no petiole.
The leaf-stalk or axis connecting the leaf to the stem.
The stalk or axis of the leaflets in a compound leaf .
Parts arranged along opposite sides of an axis; A leaf with a prominent midvein and veins along both sides of the midvein; Compound leaf with leaflets arranged along opposite sides of a petiolule or leaf stalk.
The female part of the flower typically consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary. Commonly referred to as the gynoecium (See also Stamen).
The spongy tissue in the center of a stem or root (consisting of parenchyma cells).
Mostly dioecious, but with some perfect flowers. (See also dioecious).
Mostly monoecious, but will some perfect flowers (See also dioecious).
A small sharp growth arising from the epidermis (See also thorn).
Growing or following along the ground, but not rooting where it touches.
Lying flat along the ground.
Diminutive of pubescent; having fine short hairs.
The surface of leaf or stem is covered with short fine hairs.
Triangular-shaped that is taller than wide with the width being 2/3 the height.
A once-branched inflorescence that flowers from the bottom up (See also Panicle).
The main axis of a compound leaf or inflorescence.
Parts arranged around a common center point.
Bent or curved backward.
Bent abruptly backwards or downwards.
Having or containing resin; being sticky.
Appearing like a net, or network (See also Net-veined).
Margins rolled downward towards underside of leaf.
An underground stem, distinguishable by the presence of nodes, buds, or leaves (See also Stolon and Tiller).
Diamond-shaped with 4 sides; petiole attached at one of the corners.
Radiating cluster of leaves.
Wide curved shape that is wider than Obtuse with less of a point, while not being so flattened as to approach Truncate.
A wrinkled surface as on a leaf.
The outer and lighter wood that is actively transporting water.
Rough texture due to short stiff hairs or the epidermal cells.
A small dry bract acting as a covering or layer.
Having small overlapping layers.
A dry dehiscent fruit that breaks apart into two halves.
Covered with small bran-like scales.
Sharp forward-pointing teeth along leaf margin.
Many minute sharp forward-pointing teeth along leaf margin.
Attached directly without a stalk; a leaf or flower directly attached to a stem.
A young green stem.
A small woody plant with multiple stems from the ground and that is not usually climbable; all of the branches are produced from or near the base.
A single undivided leaf. A simple leaf may have lobes, or serrations (See also Compound).
Strongly wavy margins only in one plane; close to being lobulate (See also Undulate).
On a lobed leaf a sinus is the valley between the lobes; they can vary greatly in size and shape.
Spoon or spatula-shaped, with a rounded leaf blade that tapers to the base.
An inflorescence that is unbranched with sessile flowers maturing from the bottom up.
A hard sharp woody growth that emerges from below the epidermis and is either a modified leaf or stipule (See also Thorn).
Bearing spines along leaf margins, Tiny spines at nodes on stems.
Having spines; having sharp woody growths.
The actual pattern of alternate leaves on a stem;
A short shoot with leaves or fruit. Ex. Ginkgo; A hollow projection from a flower either in the sepals or petals.
A supporting structure for a leaf, flower, or fruit.
The male part of a flower typically consisting of an anther and filament; Commonly referred to as the androecium. (See also Pistil)
Supportive structure for buds, leaves, and nodes; can be single or branched; sometimes found underground.
Barren or infertile; not able to produce seed.
The recepticle for pollen on the pistil.
A bract or appendage at the base of a petiole (usually found in pairs).
A horizontal stem that roots at the nodes and tip and can produce a new plant (See also Rhizome and Tiller).
A cone or an inflorescence resembling a cone. Ex. Alders
The tube that connects the stigma and ovary of the pistil (the female part of the flower).
Leaves appear near opposite but slightly skewed at a node without a fascicle (See also Opposite and Alternate).
Appearing one right above another; an accessory bud found above the true bud.
A balanced appearance; Having the same number of floral parts in any angle.
A central root that has smaller fibers coming off of it (See also Fibrous root).
A twining stem that supports a vine.
The end or tip of a part (See also Basal).
A hard sharp modified stem; can branch and have leaves and buds (See also Spine and Bristle).
A stiff basal or underground shoot that is mostly erect (See also Rhizome and Stolon).
Covered in a mat of short soft hair
The scar of the veins left behind when the leaf falls off (abscision), located within a leaf scar.
A large woody plant typically with a main trunk.
Leaf base or apex is perpendicular to leaf petiole and relatively straight across
The main stem of a tree.
A clump of hairs that are arranged in a dense cluster (See also Fringed).
A branch or shoot from a shrub or tree.
A stem that spirals around another object for support.
Aligned in two rows on opposite sides.
Two scales on a bud.
A flat-topped inflorescence with the pedicels (flower stalks) arising from one point (See also Corymb and Cyme).
A leaf margin that has upward and downward waves in it giving the leaf a more three-dimensional appearance (See also Sinuate).
Two organs meeting without overlapping as in many leaf buds.
Striped, mottled, or bordered color on a what normally would have been solid.
Vascular bundle scar
The scar left where the vessels were found within the leaf scar; Similar to Trace.
The habit of a shrub or tree which begins narrow and widens out the higher you go.
The pattern of the veins in a leaf.
A climbing or trailing plant that is not supported by the stem but by some other sort of fastening (i.e. tendrils).
Rolled up (See also Involute and Revolute).
A bumpy, rough surface texture.
Hanging down or pendulous.
Three or more leaves arising at a node.